The casualties suffered at Wilson's Creek were:
- Union-5,400 engaged: 258 killed (5 percent), 873 wounded (16 percent), and 186 missing (3 percent). Total casualties were 1,317 (24 percent).
- Southern-10,200 engaged: 279 killed (3 percent) and 951 wounded (9 percent). Total casualties were 1,230 (12 percent).
The Federal army was back in Springfield by the afternoon on August 10, 1861. Major Scofield came upon Colonel Sigel and updated him on the situation. That evening the Federals held a council of war. There was general agreement that an immediate retreat to Rolla, Missouri was in order. During this council, Sturgis passed command of the Federal forces over to Sigel. The Federals left at 4:00 A.M. on August 11, 1861. The retreating column moved very slowly and there was considerable dissatisfaction with Sigel's leadership. Eventually, Sturgis re-assumed command of the Federal forces. His reason were that Sigel did not have an official appointment as an officer of the United States. The Federals reached Rolla on August 19, 1861.
When the retreating Federal army entered Springfield, many of its citizens, being pro-Union had already been preparing to evacuate to Rolla, Missouri. By the time the Southern forces reached Springfield, many of the citizens had already left.
The Southern forces were in no better shape than the Federals. The Southern commanders agreed that pursuit of the Federal column was pointless, given the condition of their forces. At some point, the disagreements between Missouri State Guard Major General Sterling Price and Confederate Brigadier General Ben McCulloch reappeared. Price wanted to continue to move north toward the Missouri River valley. McCulloch wanted to withdraw to Arkansas. He would not advance into Missouri without Confederate support in the eastern part of the state.
Eventually, they agreed to part ways. Price took back command of the Missouri State Guard would head north for the Missouri River valley. McCulloch headed back to Arkansas.
Although the Battle of Wilson's Creek was a Southern victory, they would end up having little to show for it. Missouri was still firmly in the control of the Union.