After the victory at Newtonia, Union Major General Curtis pressed to continue his pursuit of the retreating Confederates. But Major General Pleasonton had received a telegram from his superior, Major General William S. Rosecrans, to have the Department of the Missouri Brigades (Sanborn, McNeil, Philips, Benteen) withdraw to their home bases. Now Curtis only had about 2,500 men in Blunt's Division to continue the pursuit. Curtis immediately sent a telegram to General-in-Chief Ulysses S. Grant asking the Missouri Cavalry Brigades be returned so he could continue the pursuit of Price's Army. Grant agreed and ordered the Missouri Cavalry Brigades to continue the pursuit. Curtis recalled the brigades, but it took time for them to respond. As it turned out, only Benteen was able (or willing) to rejoin Curtis. Curtis continued the pursuit but never did catch up to Price's Army again. Price and the remnants of his Army of Missouri crossed the Arkansas River on November 7th. Curtis called off his pursuit.
Price's Army continued his retreat south through Indian Territory. During this stage of the retreat, there was little food available and the troops suffered terribly from the cold and lack of food. Many men and horses died along the way. By the time Price crossed into Texas most of his "army" had melted away. Price finally arrived in Laynesport, Arkansas on December 2, 1864.
In his official report, Price was optimistic. He had marched 1,454 miles, fought in 43 engagements with the enemy and captured a large amount of Federal stores. He did not report that he had lost five thousand small arms, all his artillery and half of his army. Missouri Governor in exile Thomas Reynolds was harsh in his public criticism. He accused Price of "glaring mismanagement and distressing mental and physical military incapacity."
Buresh offers his list of the impact of Price's retreat from Westport:
- The defeats and retreat resulted in the complete demoralization of Price's Army - it was no longer an effective fighting force.
- General Kirby Smith realized there could be no further raids into Missouri and ordered all cavalry, except Shelby's Brigade, converted to infantry.
- The defeat and expulsion of the Confederates from Missouri caused the Federal commanders to disband many of the Missouri State Militia regiments.
- Many of the guerrillas accompanying Price's Army in retreat were also demoralized and did not return to Missouri in the spring of 1865. The guerrilla raids ceased soon thereafter.
- Cavalry tactics were enhanced as a result of what occurred at Mine Creek. Future cavalry charges would be supported by dismounted units providing firing cover for the mounted charges.
- The result at Mine creek had a profound effect on the 1864 elections and probably helped Lincoln's reelection.
- Kansas Senator James H. Lane's call for mobilization of the militia had been initially opposed by Kansas Governor Thomas Carney. By being associated with the victory at Mine Creek, the entire Lane ticket was elected. Samuel Crawford, also present at Mine Creek, was elected Governor of Kansas.
- In Missouri, there was a complete break between Governor-in-exile Reynolds and Price.
- Because of limited effect by Price's expedition on the people of Missouri, Missouri was able to put the war behind them and get their lives back to normal relatively quickly. In 1872, a democratic governor was elected. Former Confederate General John Marmaduke was elected governor in 1884.
- Kansans widely publicized the depredations that occurred during Price's retreat and the bitterness remained for a long time. The residents of the counties through which Price's army had retreated suffered through the winter of 1865.
- Senator Jim Lane lost power when Lincoln was assassinated. He became depressed and committed suicide a few years after the war.